Google, Facebook, Apple, Amazon, IBM, Microsoft, and Baidu are all building the foundations of A.I., but hundreds of startups are focused on ancillary tools (just as, 125 years ago, many companies made wooden poles, copper wire, and lamp fixtures). Nvidia is building computer chips that allow machines to react to their surroundings in real time. Fanuc is working on an unsupervised learning system, so A.I.-powered robots can learn skills on their own. Tesla is developing A.I. infrastructure for autonomous vehicles, which includes new kinds of maps and decision-making software. And Clarifai is building software that will automatically tag, organize, and search content.

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